Parkes on women’s suffrage

In 1902, Australia was the first country in the world to give women both the right to vote in federal elections and the right to be elected to parliament on a national basis. New Zealand had granted women the right to vote in 1893.
[www.australia.gov.au/about-australia/australian-story/austn-suffragettes]

As with Federation, Sir Henry Parkes did not live to see this milestone reached, but he had been a strong advocate. In 1890 and 1891, as Premier of New South Wales, he introduced electoral reform bills into Parliament that included provision for the women’s vote. They were defeated, but the issue had at last begun to attract publicity. [www.parliament.nsw.gov.au/about/Pages/Women-in-Parliament.asp]

The following report was published in the Clarence and Richmond Examiner (Grafton, NSW), Saturday 16 July 1892 [see National Library of Australia’s Trove database: http://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/article/61245285#]

In Defence of Woman

AT a public meeting in connection with the Women’s Christian Temperance Union, Sydney, Sir Henry Parkes occupied the chair, and moved “That this meeting is of opinion that the enfranchisement of women is absolutely necessary to the carrying out of her duties as a Christian woman and a citizen.” It was, he said, a healthy sign that among women themselves, and not confined to any particular class, there was a far-spreading belief that she was entitled to political equality with man, and that human society would be all the better for that equality. (Cheers).

They were told by some objectors that whenever a nation was in the throes of a crisis, when fighting had to be done and blood shed, the armies bf the State were composed exclusively of men, and therefore as this highest of all obligations in a time of peril did not fall upon woman, that alone relegated her to a different place in the policy of the land.

But was it not true that every man who fought for his country, every man who died for his country, left in that country some woman, mother, sister, wife or sweetheart who suffered as much as he, probably much more, and who by reason of his sacrifice would have a to make sacrifices also in taking his place, in doing what he would have to do if he were still alive? Was not her share then as equally heroic as that of the men who actually went into the field, imperilled their lives and too frequently lost them !

If democracy mean political equality, an equal standing, for every human being, what did they call, this but a mockery of equality? Did they not every day of their lives in nearly every walk of society see women who by reason of death, or perhaps cruelty, or perhaps misfortune, had to do in the temporal world all the hard barren fighting for the bread for the family which man in ordinary circumstances had to do? And did they not see, when women were compelled to take this stand and to pursue this hard work, that their energy, their intelligence, their sense of right and wrong, their sense of propriety and their power of endurance were seldom second to that of man?

lt seemed to him, on every ground of consideration, that in a country like this – professing to deal with equal laws, to distribute equal political privilege – women were as entitled to equal rank with man in saying who should make the laws of the country.

On the ground of political right, he should like to know how her claim to suffrage could be denied ? They compelled her to obey the laws, they punished her at every step according to her offences for any breach of the law, even to taking away her life in extreme cases. If, then, she was compelled to obey the laws of the country, how could they on any reasonable ground deny her the right to exercise her voice as to who should have a voice in making those laws?

On the ground of national policy, would anyone suppose that a nation would be the safer, the loftier in sentiment or the more enduring in public sentiment by the exclusion of women from a share in the national council? They know, on the other hand, that her influence would tend, on the whole, to elevate, to refine, and to raise the character of the nation if she was a member.

That had been exemplified in Wyoming. The time came in Wyoming, when it was necessary for women to undertake nearly every kind of public duty, even the duties of sheriff. She had to do that from sheer necessity. There were not men to do it, not men of competent fitness, and women were permitted not only to vote but to join in making the laws, to act as sheriff and to fill nearly every civil office, And she performed the duties pertaining to those great civil offices in the territory of Wyoming – which was then not a state but a territory, where government’ was still in a crude form – she’ discharged those duties so efficiently, so much to the satisfaction of the Commonwealth of America, that when Wyoming was admitted as a state she was allowed, as an exception to others of the United States, still to possess that great privilege.

And with that wonderful example of how completely she fulfilled her mission, he could not see how any reasoning man could raise an objection on the grounds which they had heard so often put forth. His own belief, in judging from long experience and opportunities of observation second to few men, was that if women were admitted to the franchise tomorrow, the effect of her vote would be seen in the character of the first legislature that she had a share in creating.

They told him that a great mass of the women would abstain from voting, that the influence of the habits of life in which they had been reared would still so cling to them that they would not avail themselves of this privilege. But was it not a fact that a large number – probably half of the males – abstained from voting, not from motives of delicacy or refinement, but from gross motives of indulgence, simply because it was too great a tax on the time which they desired to devote to making money or to personal enjoyment ?

A woman would not abstain from voting for the sake of a champagne lunch, for the sake of driving some hard bargain with someone not so keen-witted as herself. In his judgment, they would find women voting in a vast number of instances, and after a year or two in probably quite as many cases as her brothers or her other relatives.

What would be the effect? Could they suppose for one moment, with their knowledge of what women were, taking them good and bad, taking them all through, that they would vote for a man addicted to drinking habits ? For a man notoriously an enemy to the peace of society? For a man who neglected, or ill-used his wife and children ? Might they not be certain that in the general run of cases their votes would be cast in favor of “brightness, of purity, of compassion for the infirm and destitute and of care of the rising generation ?” And was there not a heap of social questions where their votes in every case could not be bribed, could not be led astray ?

But they were told that woman would vote under the influence of her husband ? Suppose she did ; was that not better than voting under the influence of a half-drunken, mercenary electioneering agent. Would her husband’s influence in the majority bf cases not be a sounder, a more discriminating influence, a more Christian influence, than the influence of more than half the men who were engaged in the conduct of elections at the present day?

Therefore on the ground of political right, on the ground of national policy, and on the ground that she was a human responsible being, woman was as justly entitled to vote as the proudest man among them. She had in charge that divine principle of volition, of aspiration called life; she must account for the way in which she used it – neither her father, nor her brother, nor her husband, nor her sweetheart could account for her – she must account for how she had used that divine principle in he known as life, for every intelligent notion, for every time she was in any way called upon by her conscience to surrender part of its ascendancy to some chosen object – seeing that In this way, she must as a member of human society account in this world to the laws of the country, and in the next to her Almighty God for her human actions, surely they could not deny her an intelligent voice in governing the country in which she lived. (Loud cheers)

— Daily Telegraph

Political communication: knowledge or noise? 2016 oration to be held in Canberra

talking to media illustration concept

The 24-hour news cycle and rise of social media provide more opportunities than ever for politicians to connect with the electorate. Why, then, is voter disillusionment with our political leaders so high?

In ‘Knowledge or noise: the problem with political communication’ distinguished journalist Karen Middleton will explore  the role of the news media in conveying political messages. Who’s responsible when politicians can’t cut through? And how do we avoid the knowledge we need being lost in all that noise?

Monday 24 October, 5.30-7.30pm. Museum of Australian Democracy, Canberra

NOW AVAILABLE ONLINE

2015 oration to trace development of the nursing profession in Australia

Dr Georgina WillettsThe 13th Henry Parkes Oration will be delivered by Dr Georgina Willetts in Tenterfield, NSW, on the topic ‘From Nightingale nurses to a modern profession: the journey of nursing in Australia’.

Dr Willetts will trace the profession from its beginnings when nurse Lucy Osburn arrived in Sydney as superintendent of the ‘Sydney Infirmary’ in 1868, at Henry Parkes’ request. Establishment of the Nightingale schools for nurse training soon followed.

Parkes’ support and Miss Osburn’s dedication laid strong foundations, but the many challenges along the way have required new solutions and new approaches.

As a descendant of Parkes as well as a distinguished nursing educator, Georgina Willetts offers a unique perspective on the development and current role of this vitally important profession.

13th Henry Parkes Oration
2pm, Saturday 17 October 2015.
Sir Henry Parkes Memorial School of Arts, Tenterfield

Free, but booking recommended. (02) 6736 6100 or email h.bolton@tenterfield.nsw.gov.au

UPDATE 22 October 2015: Read the full text


Dr Georgina Willetts, DEd(Melb), MEd(Melb), RN:RM, MRCNA, AIMM, has over 30 years acute nursing experience and a distinguished academic career. Currently coordinating the Bachelor of Nursing at Monash University, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Victoria (Clayton Campus) in the Faculty of Medicine, Nursing and Health Sciences, she has wide experience in management, education and practice development, with research interests across education, leadership and professional identity in nursing. She is a great, great granddaughter of Sir Henry Parkes.

Henry Parkes Foundation launches new book to commemorate bicentenary of Parkes’ birth

The Crimson Thread coverIdeas for contemporary Australia, inspired by the vision of founding father Henry Parkes

Wednesday 27 May marks 200 years since the birth of Henry Parkes. Best known as the ‘Father of Federation’, Parkes rose from humble beginnings to become Premier of NSW five times, making significant contributions to democratic and social reform over four decades of public life, including the introduction of universal male suffrage, free secular education for children, the introduction of training for nurses in public hospitals, and funding the state’s first public library.

Parkes’ vision for social justice and equal opportunity infused his work. To commemorate the bicentenary, the Henry Parkes Foundation has released a new book, The Crimson Thread: Ideas for Australian Society. Published in association with ETT Imprint, it gathers together speeches by eminent Australians delivered for the Foundation since 2001.

Launching the book at NSW Parliament House on Wednesday, Professor Dame Marie Bashir acknowledged Parkes’ contribution to the distinctive nature of Australian society: “Many of those characteristics for which Australians are renowned across the world – egalitarianism, the rewards of integrity, access to education, fine health services, and working towards the common good – can find these ideals in an examination of the example and leadership of Henry Parkes.”

The Crimson Thread explores contemporary issues in the context of Parkes’ vision and achievements. The result is a diverse collection ranging across the shape of federal government, options for a republic, the continuing importance of public education to a healthy democracy, the challenges of a national railway system, social justice and constitutional reform, as well as evolving multiculturalism and the broader ‘crimson thread’ of kinship that is emerging to unite Australians today.

Contributors are John Bannon, Marie Bashir, Neal Blewett, Linda Burney, Lyndsay Connors, John Faulkner, Geoff Gallop, Helen Irving, Philip Laird, Ted Mack, Susan Ryan, Gordon Samuels and George Williams.

In the background throughout the book is the example of Parkes himself. As Professor George Williams states in his contribution: “Across many fields, Parkes was a reformer, and an extremely successful one at that. He demonstrated the qualities needed to achieve social justice in a tumultuous and unforgiving political process. He showed that this can be realised when it is backed by a clear vision, sound political judgement, persistence and a willingness to convince the community of the need for change.”

At a time when “democracy is drowning in distrust” according to John Faulkner, Australia needs to rekindle some of this spirit.

“This is essentially an ‘ideas’ book calculated to encourage reflection,” says Professor Brian Fletcher in the introduction. “It is a true feast for those committed to keeping Australia at the forefront of liberal democratic nations, and is particularly germane to an age in which personal ambition and the search for power and wealth seem to have replaced the ideologies which once inspired politicians and citizens alike.”

Find out more.

2014 Oration to be broadcast by Radio National

2014 Oration to be broadcast by Radio National

Our 2014 oration, delivered on 25 July by the then Governor of New South Wales, Professor Dame Marie Bashir AD CVO, will be broadcast by ABC Radio National as part of their Big Ideas program at 8pm on Tuesday 28 October. See the Radio National website.

Dame Marie’s title was ‘The Enduring Legacy of Henry Parkes’. Here’s a quote:

“Modern Australia, often described as “the lucky country”, or “the happy country”, can attribute, I believe, these valid descriptions to the vision, the energy and the inspirational leadership of Henry Parkes. Many of those characteristics for which Australians are renowned across the world – egalitarianism, the rewards of integrity, access to education, fine health services, and working towards the common good – can find these ideals in an examination of the example and leadership of Henry Parkes.”
Find out more.

Hawkesbury River Railway Bridge celebrates 125 years

Sir Henry Parkes hosted the opening of the Hawkesbury River railway bridge in May 1889. With the massive spans constructed on Dangar Island and floated into place, the bridge was an amazing engineering achievement for the time.

125 years later, on 4 May 2014, Her Excellency, Professor Marie Bashir, Governor of New South Wales, opened an exhibition mounted by the Dangar Island Historical Society documenting and celebrating the construction of this essential link between Sydney and regions to its north.

Ian Thom, Parkes’ great great grandson and Chair of the Henry Parkes Foundation, spoke at the event of the significance of the bridge in the context of Australia’s journey towards Federation. Here’s an extract from his speech:

“Henry Parkes is of course most famously known as the ‘Father of Federation’ for his push to achieve the federation of a group of parochial independent Colonies.

“What you may not know is that he was also known as the ‘Father of the Electric Telegraph’. It was his motion in the Legislative Assembly that led to the establishment of the first electric telegraph in the colony of NSW.

“The introduction of the telegraph made communication faster and later linked all the states into a common network but with rail travel there was still one big missing link between the North and the South before a railway network could be completed.

“The gap across the Hawkesbury River posed a difficult problem that had to be solved.

“It was during Henry’s third term as Premier that he established the Public Works Loan Act to secure the funding for the construction of the bridge and associated rail lines to connect Sydney to Newcastle.

“This was to be a world class engineering feat of excavation, embankments, tunnelling and building world-record deep pylons into the muddy base of the river. There was also the problem of placing huge spans of steel onto those pylons. Most of that construction was carried out here at Dangar Island on a huge pontoon. It was approximately 100 metres long by 20 metres wide and 3 metres deep. Just constructing the world’s biggest pontoon was a challenge.

“The ‘can do’ attitude and the skills and dedication of the Australian and American workers, achieved completion ahead of time and only just over budget.

“During the construction, on 9 July 1887, Lord Brassey, who later became the Governor of Victoria, visited the construction site here. Lord Brassey was the son of a famous railway pioneer in Britain.

“I have here a book of Henry’s speeches that he presented to Lord Brassey, just 2 days later.

“In one of those speeches delivered in Melbourne in March 1867, he said.

I think the time has arrived when these colonies should be united by some federal bond or connexion. I think it must be manifest to all thoughtful men that there are questions projecting themselves upon our attention which cannot be satisfactorily dealt with by any one of the individual Governments. P256.

“Twenty two years later, in his fifth term as Premier of NSW, Henry was still pushing to achieve Federation. Henry Parkes was here at Dangar Island to host the celebrations, on that huge pontoon, for the official opening of the biggest bridge in the southern hemisphere that would enable a direct rail link between the North and the South.”

Download full speech by Ian Thom.

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Henry Parkes Foundation Chair and Parkes descendant Ian Thom wears his great great grandfather’s fob watch at the Dangar Island celebrations – a watch also likely to have been worn by Parkes when he visited the island 125 years ago to open the bridge.

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Her Excellency Professor Marie Bashir cuts the bridge’s birthday cake, watched by Henry Parkes Foundation Chair Ian Thom and Senator Deborah O’Neill. [Photo courtesy Senator O’Neill]

 

 

Media release: Time for major reform of the way we do government – Ted Mack

With distrust of politicians and disillusionment with Australia’s political systems at an all-time high, legendary independent Ted Mack believes fundamental change is required. Delivering the 2013 Henry Parkes Oration in Tenterfield NSW, where Parkes gave his celebrated ‘Federation Speech’ on 24 October 1889, Mack called for “examination of the many problems of our system of government in order to establish directions for reform”.

As the only person to have been elected, and then re-elected, as an independent to all three tiers of government in Australia, Ted Mack is uniquely positioned to reflect on this task.

He believes the state of the federation has never been so unsatisfactory, claiming it has reached this nadir “because of the obsolescence and self-regulation inherent in the constitution”. He believes we need “new electoral systems to reflect the will of the people”.

Mack sets out a process for approaching constitutional reform starting with a “fully elected constitutional commission convened on the basis of one-vote-one-value on an Australia-wide proportional basis”. He sees such a commission as having the power to utilise polling and to put plebiscites to the people, ideally to coincide with elections to establish fundamental directions. It would “meet for short sessions over a substantial period of time, and eventually be authorised to institute a referendum on the basis that the new constitution will not come into effect for say, seven years – in order to reduce the impact of short-term partisan motives.”

He also believes there is a need for an “integrity level of government separate from executive government and parliament”. Such a role would be spelt out in the Constitution as having no power in relation to political policy but only power to ensure integrity of government and to ensure the Constitution is upheld.

Mack acknowledges that serious reform is perhaps many years into the future and “the obstacles and enemies of democratic reform are many”. Democracy is making reasonable progress, he says, but there is a long way to go.

Find out more

Media release: Social justice through constitutional change – mission impossible?

The role of constitutional change in achieving social justice is the theme of the 2012 Henry Parkes Oration, to be delivered today in Canberra by Professor George Williams at the Museum of Australian Democracy.

Professor Williams will consider why achieving social justice through constitutional change often tends to be forgotten or dismissed as too hard, despite the fact that Australia’s Constitution has a profound, long-term effect on the nation and our quality of life. He believes this failure has major implications for community well-being in areas such as health, education, environmental protection and Aboriginal justice.

However, rather than accepting the task as ‘mission impossible’, Professor Williams will explore where change is needed and how it can be brought about.

To be held in the historic environment of the former House of Representatives Chamber at Old Parliament House, this is a unique opportunity to hear one of Australia’s most engaging expert commentators on constitutional issues.

Find out more.

Media release: ‘Grand Old Man’ of Australian politics finds a new voice

It’s been more than 100 years since Sir Henry Parkes, ‘Grand Old Man’ and ‘Father of Federation’, spoke in the NSW Parliament. But he was there on Friday 4 June 1999, delivering a speech in the Legislative Assembly Chamber.

Listening to him were the NSW Attorney-General, Jeff Shaw, representing the Premier, as well as the Leader of the Opposition, Kerry Chikarovski, and an audience of 150 guests, including the Governor of NSW, the Hon. Gordon Samuels.

The occasion was the launch of the Henry Parkes Foundation, a new charitable trust which aims to encourage Australians to find out more about their country’s political and constitutional history, and about how they can participate as citizens. The Governor was present as the Foundation’s patron.

Parkes, played by actor Garry Ridgway, reminisced about his first glimpse of Sydney on arriving in the colony in 1839: “Oh! Tis a goodly sight for those who seek a resting place upon Australia’s strand.” He recalled his first public speech, in favour of universal suffrage, in 1849: “The people, growing in enlightenment, will never rest until they obtain it.” And he revisited his thoughts on federation, expressed at a convention in Sydney in 1891: “The seed is sown and it must spring up to maturity. No power on earth can throw back the cause of the Australian federation.” How right he was!

In introducing Parkes, Dr Helen Irving, one of the Foundation’s advisers, quoted his famous words, “The crimson thread of kinship runs through us all”.

“This remains a valuable metaphor today,” said Dr Irving. “From an awareness of our common humanity comes a sense of the common good. Our country’s constitution and political processes are an expression of that awareness, and the more we understand about them the more effective we can be as citizens.”

The Foundation’s Chairman, Professor Brian Fletcher, said that a citizenship project for schools was one of the first activities the Foundation hoped to support.

“It is in recognition of the outstanding contribution Sir Henry Parkes made to the Federation of the Australian colonies, that the NSW Centenary of Federation Committee has endorsed the launch of the Henry Parkes Foundation,” said Prue MacSween, Deputy Chair of the NSW Centenary of Federation Committee.

Members of the Parkes family who were present said it was their aim to carry forward his vision for Australia in today’s context. “We want to honour our ancestor in real and living ways—to do things that will continue to embody his egalitarian ideals now and in the future,” said great grand-daughter Jane Gray, a trustee of the Foundation.

Vision of the Grand Old Man to live again

Descendants of Sir Henry Parkes have joined with an eminent group of academics and community leaders to bring to life the spirit of the Grand Old Man of Australian politics.

At a small but historic event hosted by His Excellency the Governor, the Henry Parkes Foundation was established today as a charitable trust. The event took place in the office of the Governor, which had been Parkes’ office as Prime Minister of New South Wales, and which has been largely preserved along with all its furniture. The Deed constituting the Foundation was signed at the very same desk at which Parkes worked for so many years.

Parkes biographer Allan Martin has noted that despite the poverty and hardship of his early days in England, Parkes “played a leading part in the democratisation of the constitution which in 1856 established local self rule” and “went on to spend half a century of almost unbroken membership of the colonial parliament … becoming recognised by the late 1880s on all sides as the Grand Old Man of Australian politics.

“Despite many setbacks, he held firmly to the belief in the central importance of what could be achieved through parliamentary institutions,” said Martin.

“It is this principle that we want to carry forward,” said the Chair of the new Foundation, Brian Fletcher, Bicentennial Professor of Australian History at the University of Sydney. He emphasised the importance of this belief in the context of growing disillusionment with politics and politicians among Australians.

“We aim to interest people in politics and political structures so they can continue to use them to help maintain Australia as a just and open democratic society,” said Professor Fletcher.

Members of the Parkes family who were present said it was their aim to try and carry forward his vision for Australia in ways appropriate to today. “There’s no point in just honouring our ancestor unless we try to do something too,” said great grand-daughter Jane Gray.

Others on the Foundation’s Board of Advisers include the Hon. Neal Blewett, former Professor of Political Science at Flinders University, Labor Government Minister and Australian High Commissioner in London; Dr Helen Irving, senior lecturer in political science at UTS; Peter Webber, Professor of Architecture at the University of Sydney and National Trust Board Members; Alan Ventress, the Mitchell Librarian; Ellen Elzey, EO of the Sydney Mechanics’ School of Arts, and Parkes descendants Jane Gray and Ian Thom. Former North Sydney Deputy Mayor Neil Hartley will act as co-Trustee, with Jane Gray and Ellen Elzey.

The Henry Parkes Foundation will be launched at a special event next year which will commemorate the significant role played by Parkes in Australia’s political history.